How Slot Machines Work: The Stop Button
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Interesting question - I'd have assumed that they would use hardware that provided true randomness noise generators or whateverbut I imagine that even with those they might use them in conjunction with a PRNG.
That is, the source of entropy leading to the seed for the starting position is the critical thing.
For example, something like the has such properties.
Using cryptographically secure random generators only becomes important when the actual output of the random generator can be viewed directly.
For example, if you were monitoring each number https://jakeenglish.info/are/are-penny-slots-good-to-play.html generated by the number generator - after viewing many numbers in the sequence - with a non-cryptographic generator information about that sequence can lead to establishing information about all the internal state of the generator.
At this point, if you know what the algorithm looks like, you would be able to predict future numbers and that would be bad.
The cryptographic generator prevents that reverse engineering back to the internal state so that predicting future numbers becomes "impossible".
However, in the case of a casino game, you would or should have no visibility to the actual numbers being generated under the hood.
Each time a random number is generated - say a 32-bit number - that number will be used then, for example, mod 52 for a deck shuffling algorithm.
That is, most of the bits of "randomness" is just being thrown out and even the ones being used you have no visibility to.
Therefore, no way to reverse engineer the state.
Getting back to a true source of entropy to seed the whole process, that is the hard part.
See the Wikipedia entry on for some starting points on techniques.
As an aside, if you did want cryptographically sequence random numbers from a "regular" algorithm, a simple approach is to take a few random numbers in sequence, concatenate them together and then run something like MD5 or SHA-1 on them and the result is just as random and also cryptographically secure.
That is, you just made your own "secure" random number generator.
Security here obscurity i.
An insider attack is all it takes to break the system.
However, using fast hash functions makes sense if speed is a concern.
The number chosen is based on when the button is pressed; thus, the security of the RNG is relatively unimportant.
During the time when the game was not in use it showed a "demo" version of a horse race.
Except that the demo version turned out to be what was in use when you played the game.
Thus you already knew which horse had won.
Mersenne Twister is NOT SUITABLE for this application.
It is not are video slot machines random secure: given some of its outputs, you can predict future outputs.
That's a serious problem for a gambling machine.
Also, the claims about "no direct visibility" are baloney: they are witchcraft with no solid technical basis underlying them.
Just because you have transformed the output of a non-secure PRNG somehow, does not necessarily make it secure.
I hope no one will follow the advice in this answer.
Without due dilligence, it can go.
To get a licence to operate a gaming site in a particular jurisdiction usually requires that the RNG has been certified by an independent third-party.
The third-party testers will analyse the source code and run statistical tests e.
Reputable poker sites will usually include details of the certification that their RNG has undergone for example:.
I've been involved in a few gaming projects, and for one of them I had to design and implement the RNG part, so I had to investigate all of these issues.
Most poker sites will use some hardware device for entropy, but they won't rely on just hardware.
Usually it will be used in conjunction with a pseudo-RNG PRNG.
There are two main reasons for this.
Firstly, the hardware is slow, it can only are video slot machines random a certain number of bits of entropy in a given time period from whatever physical process it is monitoring.
Secondly, hardware fails in unpredictable ways that software PRNGs do not.
It can be fed entropy from one or more external sources e.
It's a decent choice for gaming sites, though some might argue it is overkill.
This is mostly good enough, but it does suffer from the degrees of freedom problem.
Most stock RNG implementations e.
Mersenne Twister do not have sufficient degrees of freedom to be able to generate every possible shuffle of a 52-card deck from a given initial state this is something I tried to explain in a.
EDIT: I've answered mostly in relation to online poker rooms and casinos, but the same considerations apply to physical video poker and video slots machines in real world casinos.
Very interesting although the degree of free argument is flawed.
If you do not re-seed between shuffles you will eventually hit every deck combo.
In practice it probably doesn't matter, but in theory it's nicer to have every shuffle to be possible.
The real problem with MT is that given a relative small sample of outputs you can calculate the internal state.
I know it has been a while.
We had perform a separate audit of the R210, and it passed without a flaw.
You probably need a cryptographically secure pseudo-random generator.
There gold slots edition farming what in are 2019 simulator a lot of variants.
Google "Blum-Blum-Shub", for example.
The security properties of these pseudo-random generators will generally be that, even when the attacker can observe polynomially many outputs from such generators, it won't be feasible to guess the next output with a probability much better than random guessing.
Also, it is not feasible to distinguish the output of such generators are video slot machines random truly random bits.
The security holds even when all the algorithms and parameters are known by the attacker except for the secret seed.
The security of the generators is often measured with respect to a security parameter.
In the case of BBS, it is the size of the modulus.
This is no different from other crypto stuff.
For example, RSA is secure only when the key is long enough.
Note that, the output of such generators may not be uniform in fact, can be far away from uniform in statistical sense.
But since no one can distinguish the two distributions without infinite computing power, these generators will suffice in most applications that require truly random bits.
Bear in mind, however, that these cryptographically secure pseudo-random generators are usually slow.
So if speed is indeed a concern, less rigorous approaches may be more relevant, such as using hash functions, as suggested by Jeff.
I don't think it is necessary for the PRNG to be cryptographically secure.
The seeding is the more important part.
I try to address this in more detail in my answer.
BBS failed all of the statistical tests we have conducted and is therefore not suitable for stochastic simulations.
Even a simplistic generator can be used.
Even if you knew the algorithm used, you cannot observe where in the sequence it is because nearly all the results are discarded.
If somehow you did know where it was in the sequence, you'd have to have millisecond or better timing to take advantage of it.
Modern "mechanical reel" machines use PRNGs and drive the reels with stepper motors to simulate the old style spin-and-brake.
A good solution is to use hardware devices to seed the PRNG.
A PRNG design like Fortuna allows you to continuously mix in entropy from the hardware, but is still safe if the hardware fails.
The technical specifications for RNGs licensed in Are video slot machines random for gaming purposes are laid out in.
You have to seed the RNG using a millisecond time source or other true entropy source which has no external readout anywhere on the machine.
It must display a warning if this test fails, and it must disable play if it fails twice in a row.
As a pessimal example, don't actually generate every possible output in their range, so they're not very useful for gaming.
Additionally, your machine design has to be submitted to the gaming commission and it has to be approved, which is expensive and takes lots of time.
There are a few that specialize in auditing your new RNG to make sure it's random.
Gaming Laboratories publishes an than Nevada does.
They go into much greater detail about theand Nevada in particular likes to see core RNGs that it's previously approved.
This can all get very expensive, which is why many developers prefer to license an existing previously-approved RNG for new game projects.
Here is a fun list of to keep you up late at night.
For super-nerds only: the source for most USB hardware RNGs is typically an.
However, the thermal noise produced by this type of diode is not quantum-random, and it is possible to influence the randomness of an avalanche diode by significantly lowering the temperature.
As a final note, someone above recommended just using a Mersenne Twister for random number generation.
This is a Bad Idea unless you are taking additional entropy from some other source.
The plain vanilla Mersenne Twister is highly inappropriate for gaming and cryptographic applications, If you want to do it properly you have to get physical - the UK national savings number picker uses a shot noise in Neon tubes.
I for sure have seen a german gambling machine that was not allowed to be ran commercially after a given date, so I suppose it was a PNRG with a looong one time pad seed list.
Most poker sites use hardware random number generators.
Quite often the resultant numbers just index pre-generated decks starting off as a sorted list of cards.
Video Slot Machines and Reel Slot Machines Since that first slot machine, many things have changed but the concept remains the same. The slot machine will choose a random number for each reel and will slot a symbol into a position on the reel when it stops spinning.
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